dihedral88888 at googlemail
Aug 12, 2012, 4:59 AM
Post #44 of 57
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Re: save dictionary to a file without brackets.
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Steven D'Aprano於 2012年8月11日星期六UTC+8下午7時26分37秒寫道： > On Fri, 10 Aug 2012 08:53:43 +1000, Chris Angelico wrote: > > > > > On Fri, Aug 10, 2012 at 8:26 AM, Dave Angel <d [at] davea> wrote: > > >> On 08/09/2012 06:03 PM, Andrew Cooper wrote: > > >>> O(n) for all other entries in the dict which suffer a hash collision > > >>> with the searched entry. > > >>> > > >>> True, a sensible choice of hash function will reduce n to 1 in common > > >>> cases, but it becomes an important consideration for larger datasets. > > >> > > >> I'm glad you're wrong for CPython's dictionaries. The only time the > > >> lookup would degenerate to O[n] would be if the hash table had only one > > >> slot. CPython sensibly increases the hash table size when it becomes > > >> too small for efficiency. > > >> > > >> Where have you seen dictionaries so poorly implemented? > > > > > > In vanilla CPython up to version (I think) 3.3, where it's possible to > > > DoS the hash generator. Hash collisions are always possible, just > > > ridiculously unlikely unless deliberately exploited. > > > > Not so unlikely actually. > > > > py> hash(3) > > 3 > > py> hash(2**64 + 2) > > 3 > > > > py> hash(1) > > 2 > > py> hash(2) > > 2 > > > > > > By its very nature, a hash function cannot fail to have collisions. The > > problem is that in general you have an essentially unlimited number of > > objects being mapped to a large but still finite number of hash values. > > > > > > > >  > > Steven Steven D'Aprano於 2012年8月11日星期六UTC+8下午7時26分37秒寫道： > On Fri, 10 Aug 2012 08:53:43 +1000, Chris Angelico wrote: > > > > > On Fri, Aug 10, 2012 at 8:26 AM, Dave Angel <d [at] davea> wrote: > > >> On 08/09/2012 06:03 PM, Andrew Cooper wrote: > > >>> O(n) for all other entries in the dict which suffer a hash collision > > >>> with the searched entry. > > >>> > > >>> True, a sensible choice of hash function will reduce n to 1 in common > > >>> cases, but it becomes an important consideration for larger datasets. > > >> > > >> I'm glad you're wrong for CPython's dictionaries. The only time the > > >> lookup would degenerate to O[n] would be if the hash table had only one > > >> slot. CPython sensibly increases the hash table size when it becomes > > >> too small for efficiency. > > >> > > >> Where have you seen dictionaries so poorly implemented? > > > > > > In vanilla CPython up to version (I think) 3.3, where it's possible to > > > DoS the hash generator. Hash collisions are always possible, just > > > ridiculously unlikely unless deliberately exploited. > > > > Not so unlikely actually. > > > > py> hash(3) > > 3 > > py> hash(2**64 + 2) > > 3 > > > > py> hash(1) > > 2 > > py> hash(2) > > 2 > > > > > > By its very nature, a hash function cannot fail to have collisions. The > > problem is that in general you have an essentially unlimited number of > > objects being mapped to a large but still finite number of hash values. > > > > > > > >  > > Steven Lets check the basic operations of a hash table or socalled a dictionary first. If the dictionary is implemented toward faster in searching items, then it is slightly different in the insertion and the deletion operations of (key, value) pairs.  http://mail.python.org/mailman/listinfo/pythonlist
